Digital communications: Principles and Systems

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IET Digital Library

This title is available electronically through the IET Digital Library

  • Author:

  • Year: 2014

  • Format: Hardback

  • Product Code: PBTE0580

  • ISBN: 978-1-84919-611-6

  • Pagination: 520pp

  • Stock Status: In stock

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Description

Digital communications: Principles and Systems aims to provide post graduate students and practising engineers with a thorough understanding in the core principles and design issues of digital communications to meet the industry demand for in-depth expertise in digital transmission techniques.

A worldwide digital and wireless communication revolution has taken place in the last 20 years which has created a high demand in industry for graduates with in-depth expertise in digital transmission techniques and a sound and complete understanding of their core principles.

Although digital communications is developing at a fast pace, this book recognises that the core principles remain the same. Many existing works on emerging digital transmission techniques are largely confined to academic research papers; therefore this book will give postgraduate students and practicing engineers a sound mastery of the subject.

This textbook concentrates on giving a solid foundation of core principles and design issues of digital communications. Engineering concepts and underlying physical considerations are described as well as a clear appreciation of the parameters involved, offering a good feel for the interplay of these parameters. Extensive coaching in the solution of practical problems are also drawn from various application areas.

Digital communications: Principles and Systems is an ideal textbook for those who wish to;

  • gain a thorough understanding of the core principles
  • undertake digital communication systems analysis
  • design and computer simulations
  • deal with specialised applications
  • keep up to date with advances in the technology

Topics covered include:

  • overview of digital communication
  • linear channels and systems
  • nonlinear systems
  • sampling of baseband and bandpass signals
  • quantisation and PCM
  • source coding and lossless data compression
  • line codes
  • transmission through bandlimited AWGN channels
  • transmitted digital signals
  • noise impact in digital transmission
  • error control coding
  • digital transmission link analysis and design

 

About the Author

Ifiok Otung is a Chartered Engineer with broad and international experience of research and teaching at various universities in Europe and Africa. He has previously worked as a consultant for the UK Electrical and Electronic Engineering Assessment Network and the Engineering Subject Centre of the UK Higher Education Academy.

He has authored over 110 publications, and is a regular reviewer of technical articles and textbooks for some of the world’s leading academic publishers. Ifiok Otung is currently Professor of Satellite Communications at the University of Glamorgan, where he teaches MSc courses in Satellite, Mobile and Digital Communications.

 ABI - Digital communications: Principles and Systems

Book readership

Digital communications: Principles and Systems is an ideal textbook for postgraduate and advanced undergraduate students studying telecommunications subjects. This book will also provide practicing engineers with a thorough grounding in the core principles and design issues of digital communications.

Book contents

1 Overview of digital communication 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Building blocks of a digital communication system 2
1.2.1 Transmitter and receiver 2
1.2.2 Analogue and digital communication systems 3
1.2.3 Information source 7
1.2.4 Information sink 10
1.2.5 Channel 12
1.3 Signal processing tasks 15
1.3.1 Source coding 17
1.3.2 Multiplexing 18
1.3.3 Channel coding 22
1.3.4 Line coding 24
1.3.5 Carrier modulation 27
1.3.6 Spread spectrum 30
1.3.7 Synchronisation 31
1.3.8 Filtering operations 33
1.4 Why digital communication? 36
1.4.1 The digital revolution 36
1.4.2 Advantages of digital over analogue communication 37
1.4.3 Disadvantages of digital communication 39
1.5 Summary 39

2 Linear channels and systems 41
2.1 Introduction 41
2.2 Linearity and system classifications 42
2.3 Time-domain characterisation of LTI systems 45
2.4 Frequency-domain characterisation of LTI systems 50
2.5 Output spectral density of LTI systems 57
2.6 LTI system bandwidth 59
2.6.1 3-dB and null-bandwidths 60
2.6.2 Noise-equivalent bandwidth 61
2.7 Distortionless transmission 65
2.8 Multipath distortion 68
2.9 Terrestrial mobile radio channel 76
2.10 Summary 77
2.11 References 78

3 Non-linear systems 79
3.1 Introduction 79
3.2 Memoryless non-linear systems 80
3.3 Non-linear systems with memory 84
3.4 Simulation of non-linear systems 86
3.5 Intermodulation distortion 88
3.6 Summary 101
3.7 Reference 101

4 Sampling of base band and band pass signals 103
4.1 Introduction 103
4.2 The sampling concept and theorem 104
4.3 Sampling a sinusoidal signal 106
4.4 Base band signal sampling and alias distortion 109
4.5 Band pass signal sampling 118
4.6 Mathematical basis of sampling 129
4.7 Non-instantaneous sampling and aperture effect 138
4.8 Anti-alias filter 144
4.9 Summary 147
4.10 Reference 147

5 Quantisation and PCM 149
5.1 Introduction 149
5.2 Concept and classes of quantisation 150
5.3 Uniform quantisation 152
5.3.1 Quantisation design parameters and trade-offs 154
5.3.2 Shortcomings of uniform quantisation 155
5.4 Non-uniform quantisation 158
5.4.1 Ideal log-companding 159
5.4.2 A-law companding 162
5.4.3 m-Law companding 163
5.4.4 Specification of companding 164
5.4.5 Companding gain and penalty 167
5.5 PCM 171
5.5.1 A-law and m-law PCM 172
5.5.2 SQNR of A-law and m-law PCM 178
5.6 Lossy compression 181
5.6.1 Waveform coders 182
5.6.2 Vocoder 188
5.6.3 Hybrid coder 190
5.7 Summary 190
5.8 References 191

6 Source coding and lossless data compression 193
6.1 Introduction 193
6.2 Classes and features of data compression 194
6.3 Information content and entropy 194
6.4 Prefix and non-prefix variable-length codes 198
6.4.1 Source coding theorem and code efficiency 201
6.4.2 The code space concept 202
6.5 Huffman coding 206
6.5.1 Encoding process 206
6.5.2 Decoding process 212
6.5.3 Weaknesses of Huffman coding 213
6.6 Lempel-Ziv coding 215
6.6.1 Run-length encoding (RLE) 215
6.6.2 Lempel-Ziv encoding process 216
6.6.3 Lempel-Ziv decoding process 219
6.6.4 Strengths and drawbacks of Lempel-Ziv 220
6.7 Arithmetic coding 220
6.7.1 Arithmetic encoding process 221
6.7.2 Arithmetic decoding 227
6.7.3 Arithmetic precision issue 228
6.7.4 Adaptive model 229
6.7.5 Weaknesses of arithmetic coding 229
6.8 Summary 230
6.9 References 232

7 Line codes 233
7.1 Introduction 233
7.2 Classes and efficiency of line codes 234
7.3 Power spectral density of line codes 235
7.3.1 Autocorrelation and spectral density 235
7.3.2 PSD of random binary waveforms 237
7.3.3 PSD of general line code waveforms 239
7.4 Basic line codes 246
7.4.1 Nonreturn to zero (NRZ) line codes 246
7.4.2 Return to zero (RZ) line codes 250
7.4.3 Biphase line codes 253
7.5 Advanced codes 255
7.5.1 Run length limited (RLL) line codes 255
7.5.2 Block line codes 259
7.6 Summary 262
7.7 Reference 263

8 Transmission through band limited AWGN channels 265
8.1 Introduction 265
8.2 ISI and bandwidth constraint on symbol rate 269
8.2.1 Nyquist filtering 270
8.2.2 Raised cosine filtering 272
8.2.3 Square root raised cosine filtering 274
8.2.4 Duobinary signalling 277
8.3 Noise constraint on bit rate 283
8.3.1 Characterisation of a discrete memoryless channel 283
8.3.2 Mutual information and channel capacity 285
8.3.3 Channel coding theorem and information capacity law 290
8.4 The matched filter 295
8.4.1 Heuristic approach 295
8.4.2 Mathematical basis 298
8.4.3 Matched filter as a correlator 299
8.5 Eye diagram 300
8.6 Summary 303
8.7 References 304

9 Transmitted digital signals 305
9.1 Introduction 305
9.2 Geometric representation of signals 306
9.2.1 Orthogonality of signals 306
9.2.2 Signal space 312
9.3 Symbols in digital transmission systems 319
9.3.1 Base band systems 319
9.3.2 Modulated systems 320
9.4 Complex representation of signals 328
9.4.1 The Hilbert transform 329
9.4.2 Canonical and envelope representations 332
9.4.3 Application to noise 336
9.5 Signal correlation 339
9.5.1 Correlation of M-ary ASK symbols 340
9.5.2 Correlation of M-ary PSK symbols 341
9.5.3 Correlation of M-ary FSK symbols 341
9.5.4 Impact of symbol correlation 343
9.6 Coherent detection 344
9.6.1 Correlation receiver 345
9.6.2 Noise rejection in M-ary FSK 347
9.7 Digital modulators 348
9.7.1 M-ary ASK modulator 348
9.7.2 M-ary PSK modulator 349
9.7.3 M-ary QAM modulator 350
9.7.4 M-ary FSK modulator 351
9.8 Summary 352
9.9 References 353

10 Noise impact in digital transmission 355
10.1 Introduction 355
10.2 Random signals 357
10.2.1 Random process 358
10.2.2 Random signal parameters 358
10.2.3 Stationarity and ergodicity 361
10.2.4 Additive white Gaussian noise 361
10.3 System noise quantification 364
10.3.1 Noise temperature and noise factor 364
10.3.2 Overall system noise temperature 367
10.3.3 Carrier-to-noise ratio 369
10.4 Basic analysis of noise impact 372
10.5 BER of binary transmission systems 374
10.5.1 PSK and bipolar base band 375
10.5.2 ASK and unipolar base band 376
10.5.3 FSK 376
10.5.4 Identical symbols 376
10.6 BER of M-ary transmission systems 377
10.6.1 Gray coding and BER 377
10.6.2 M-ary ASK 378
10.6.3 M-ary PSK 381
10.6.4 M-ary QAM 382
10.6.5 M-ary FSK 386
10.7 Summary 388
10.8 Reference 389

11 Error control coding 391
11.1 Introduction 391
11.2 General terminologies and classes 394
11.3 ARQ techniques 397
11.3.1 Stop and wait ARQ 397
11.3.2 Go-back-N ARQ 400
11.3.3 Continuous ARQ with selective repeat 403
11.3.4 Sliding window flow control 404
11.4 Effectiveness of error control codes 408
11.4.1 Error detection 408
11.4.2 Error correction 413
11.4.3 Interleaving and concatenation 420
11.5 Linear block codes 424
11.5.1 General concepts 424
11.5.2 Cyclic codes 431
11.5.3 Reed-Solomon code 442
11.6 Summary 454
11.7 Reference 454

12 Digital transmission link analysis and design 455
12.1 Introduction 455
12.2 Link analysis 455
12.3 Link design 459
12.4 References 464

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