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Numerical Analysis of Power System Transients and Dynamics

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IET Digital Library

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  • Book title: Numerical Analysis of Power System Transients and Dynamics

  • Author:

  • Year: 2014

  • Format: Hardback

  • Product Code: PBPO0780

  • ISBN: 978-1-84919-849-3

  • Pagination: 544pp

  • Stock Status: In stock

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Description

Due to significant changes introduced through the connection of renewable energy sources, the transient analysis of electrical networks has become very important for both HVAC and HVDC systems.

Based on a circuit-theory based approach Numerical Analysis of Power System Transients and Dynamics describes three of the most widely used power system transient and dynamics simulation tools;  EMTP-ATP, EMTP-RV and EMTDC/PSCAD, in addition to powerful simulation tools such as XTAP.

Combining theory with real-world examples, this book covers;

  • transients in various components related to a renewable system
  • surges on wind farm and collection systems
  • protective devices such as fault locators and high speed switchgear
  • overvoltage’s in a power system
  • dynamic phenomena in FACTS
  • the application of SVC to a cable system; and grounding systems.

About the Author

Akihiro Ametani has been a professor at Doshisha University since 1985 and is a Fellow of IET, Life Fellow of IEEE, and a distinguished member of CIGRE.

Book review

In conclusion, this book is a good reference to become familiar with the tools and methods available for the numerical analysis of power systems transient and dynamics. It has extensive literature reviews and case studies covering major topics in the transient analysis of electric power systems. An advantage of this text is its presentation of a combination of recent research and traditional knowledge in the area.

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine, Issue of May/June 2016

Book readership

Numerical Analysis of Power System Transients and Dynamics is ideal for researchers involved in the analysis of power systems for development and optimisation, and will also be of interest to professionals and advanced students working with power systems.

Book contents

1 Introduction of circuit theory-based approach and numerical electromagnetic analysis 1

A. Ametani

1.1 Circuit theory-based approach: EMTP 1

1.1.1 Summary of the original EMTP 1

1.1.2 Nodal analysis 2

1.1.3 Equivalent resistive circuit 4

1.1.4 Sparse matrix 7

1.1.5 Frequency-dependent line model 8

1.1.6 Transformer 9

1.1.7 Three-phase synchronous machine 10

1.1.8 Universal machine 11

1.1.9 Switches 13

1.1.10 Surge arrester and protective gap (archorn) 16

1.1.11 Inclusion of nonlinear elements 18

1.1.12 TACS 20

1.1.13 MODELS (implemented in the ATP-EMTP) 22

1.1.14 Power system elements prepared in EMTP 24

1.1.15 Basic input data 24

1.2 Numerical electromagnetic analysis 36

1.2.1 Introduction 36

1.2.2 Maxwell’s equations 37

1.2.3 NEA method 38

1.2.4 Method of Moments in the time and frequency domains 38

1.2.5 Finite-difference time-domain method 41

1.3 Conclusions 42

References 42

 

2 EMTP-ATP 47

M. Kizilcay and H.K. Hoidalen

2.1 Introduction 47

2.2 Capabilities 48

2.2.1 Overview 48

2.2.2 Built-in electrical components 48

2.2.3 Embedded simulation modules TACS and MODELS 49

2.2.4 Supporting modules 50

2.2.5 Frequency-domain analysis 52

2.2.6 Power flow option – FIX SOURCE 52

2.2.7 Typical power system studies 53

2.3 Solution methods 53

2.3.1 Switches 53

2.3.2 Non-linearities 58

2.3.3 Transmission lines 58

2.3.4 Electrical machines 62

2.4 Control systems 63

2.4.1 TACS 63

2.4.2 MODELS 65

2.4.3 User-definable component (type 94) 65

2.5 Graphical preprocessor ATPDraw 66

2.5.1 Main functionality 67

2.5.2 Input dialogues 68

2.5.3 Line and cable modelling – LCC module 68

2.5.4 Transformer modelling – XFMR module 70

2.5.5 Machine modelling – Windsyn module 72

2.5.6 MODELS module 73

2.6 Other post- and pre-processors 73

2.6.1 PlotXY program to view and create scientific plots 74

2.6.2 ATPDesigner – design and simulation of electrical power networks 74

2.6.3 ATP Analyzer 77

2.7 Examples 78

2.7.1 Lightning study – line modelling, flashover and current variations 78

2.7.2 Neutral coil tuning – optimization 82

2.7.3 Arc modelling 84

2.7.4 Transformer inrush current calculations 88

2.7.5 Power system toolbox: relaying 93

References 99

 

3 Simulation of electromagnetic transients with EMTP-RV 103

J. Mahseredjian, Ulas Karaagac, Se´bastien Dennetie`re and Hani Saad

3.1 Introduction 103

3.2 The main modules of EMTP 103

3.3 Graphical user interface 104

3.4 Formulation of EMTP network equations for steady-state and time-domain solutions 106

3.4.1 Modified-augmented-nodal-analysis used in EMTP 106

3.4.2 State-space analysis 112

3.5 Control systems 114

3.6 Multiphase load-flow solution and initialization 116

3.6.1 Load-flow constraints 118

3.6.2 Initialization of load-flow equations 119

3.6.3 Initialization from a steady-state solution 119

3.7 Implementation 120

3.8 EMTP models 120

3.9 External programming interface 121

3.10 Application examples 122

3.10.1 Switching transient studies 122

3.10.2 IEEE-39 benchmark bus example 124

3.10.3 Wind generation 126

3.10.4 Geomagnetic disturbances 128

3.10.5 HVDC transmission 130

3.10.6 Very large-scale systems 132

3.11 Conclusions 132

References 132

 

4 PSCAD/EMTDC 135

D. Woodford, G. Irwin and U.S. Gudmundsdottir

4.1 Introduction 135

4.2 Capabilities of EMTDC 138

4.3 Interpolation between time steps 139

4.4 User-built modelling 141

4.5 Interfacing to other programs 142

4.5.1 Interfacing to MATLAB/Simulink 142

4.5.2 Interfacing with the E-TRAN translator 143

4.6 Operations in PSCAD 145

4.6.1 Basic operation in PSCAD 145

4.6.2 Hybrid simulation 146

4.6.3 Exact modelling of power system equipment 148

4.6.4 Large and complex power system models 148

4.7 Specialty studies with PSCAD 149

4.7.1 Global gain margin 150

4.7.2 Multiple control function optimizations 150

4.7.3 Sub-synchronous resonance 150

4.7.4 Sub-synchronous control interaction 151

4.7.5 Harmonic frequency scan 152

4.8 Further development of PSCAD 152

4.8.1 Parallel processing 152

4.8.2 Communications, security and management of large system studies 153

4.9 Application of PSCAD to cable transients 154

4.9.1 Simulation set-up 155

4.9.2 Parameters for cable constant calculations 158

4.9.3 Cable model improvements 161

4.9.4 Summary for application of PSCAD to cable transients 165

4.10 Conclusions 166

References 166

 

5 XTAP 169

T. Noda

5.1 Overview 169

5.2 Numerical integration by the 2S-DIRK method 169

5.2.1 The 2S-DIRK integration algorithm 170

5.2.2 Formulas for linear inductors and capacitors 172

5.2.3 Analytical accuracy comparisons with other integration methods 174

5.2.4 Analytical stability and stiff-decay comparisons with other integration methods 176

5.2.5 Numerical comparisons with other integration methods 177

5.3 Solution by a robust and efficient iterative scheme 184

5.3.1 Problem description 187

5.3.2 Iterative methods 188

5.3.3 Iterative scheme used in XTAP 194

5.3.4 Numerical examples 195

5.4 Steady-state initialization method 205

5.5 Object-oriented design of the simulation code 207

References 208

 

6 Numerical electromagnetic analysis using the FDTD method 213

Y. Baba

6.1 Introduction 213

6.2 FDTD method 214

6.2.1 Fundamentals 214

6.2.2 Advantages and disadvantages 217

6.3 Representations of lightning return-stroke channels and excitations 217

6.3.1 Lightning return-stroke channels 217

6.3.2 Excitations 220

6.4 Applications 221

6.4.1 Lightning electromagnetic fields at close and far distances 221

6.4.2 Lightning surges on overhead power transmission lines and towers 227

6.4.3 Lightning surges on overhead power distribution lines 233

6.4.4 Lightning electromagnetic environment in power substation 236

6.4.5 Lightning electromagnetic environment in airborne vehicles 236

6.4.6 Lightning surges and electromagnetic environment in buildings 238

6.4.7 Surges on grounding electrodes 238

6.5 Summary 239

References 239

 

7 Numerical electromagnetic analysis with the PEEC method 247

Peerawut Yutthagowith

7.1 Mixed potential integral equations 250

7.2 Formulation of the generalized PEEC models 252

7.2.1 Derivation of the generalized PEEC method 252

7.2.2 Circuit interpretation of the PEEC method 257

7.2.3 Discretization of PEEC elements 258

7.2.4 PEEC models for a plane half space 259

7.3 Some approximate aspects of PEEC models 260

7.3.1 Center-to-center retardation approximation 260

7.3.2 Quasi-static PEEC models 262

7.3.3 Partial element calculation 262

7.4 Matrix formulation and solution 266

7.4.1 Frequency domain circuit equations and the solution 267

7.4.2 Time-domain circuit equations and the solution 269

7.5 Stability of PEEC models 272

7.5.1 þPEEC formulation 273

7.5.2 Parallel damping resistors 273

7.6 Electromagnetic field calculation by the PEEC model 274

7.7 Application examples 277

7.7.1 Surge characteristics of transmission towers 277

7.7.2 Surge characteristics of grounding systems 284

References 286

 

8 Lightning surges in renewable energy system components 291

K. Yamamoto

8.1 Lightning surges in a wind turbine 291

8.1.1 Overvoltage caused by lightning surge propagation on a wind turbine 291

8.1.2 Earthing characteristics of a wind turbine 300

8.1.3 Example of lightning accidents and its investigations 308

8.2 Solar power generation system 318

8.2.1 Lightning surges in a MW-class solar power generation system 319

8.2.2 Overvoltage caused by a lightning strike to a solar power generation system 339

References 354

 

9 Surges on wind power plants and collection systems 359

Y. Yasuda

9.1 Introduction 359

9.2 Winter lightning and back-flow surge 361

9.3 Earthing system of wind turbines and wind power plants 362

9.3.1 Earthing system of WTs 362

9.3.2 Earthing system in WPPs 363

9.4 Wind power plant models for lightning surge analysis 363

9.4.1 WPP model 363

9.4.2 Model for winter lightning 365

9.4.3 Model for surge protection device (SPD) 365

9.4.4 Comparison analysis between ARENE and PSCAD/EMTDC 367

9.5 Mechanism of SPD’s burnout incidents due to back-flow surge 368

9.5.1 Analysis of the surge propagations in WPP 368

9.5.2 Detail analysis on surge waveforms 369

9.6 Effect of overhead earthing wire to prevent back-flow surge 370

9.6.1 Model of a collection line in a WPP 371

9.6.2 Observation of waveforms around SPDs 372

9.6.3 Evaluation of the possibility of the SPD’s burning out 373

9.6.4 Evaluation of potential rise of earthing system 376

9.7 Conclusions 377

Symbols and abbreviations 377

Acknowledgments 378

References 378

 

10 Protective devices: fault locator and high-speed switchgear 381

T. Funabashi

10.1 Introduction 381

10.2 Fault locator 381

10.2.1 Fault locator algorithm 382

10.2.2 Fault locator model description using MODELS 383

10.2.3 Study on influence of fault arc characteristics 385

10.2.4 Study on influence of errors in input devices 389

10.3 High-speed switchgear 393

10.3.1 Modeling methods 395

10.3.2 Comparative study with measurement 395

10.3.3 Influence of voltage sag magnitude 397

10.4 Conclusions 400

References 400

 

11 Overvoltage protection and insulation coordination 403

T. Ohno

11.1 Classification of overvoltages 403

11.1.1 Temporary overvoltage 404

11.1.2 Slow-front overvoltage 405

11.1.3 Fast-front overvoltage 406

11.1.4 Very-fast-front overvoltage 407

11.2 Insulation coordination study 408

11.2.1 Study flow 408

11.2.2 Determination of the representative overvoltages 408

11.2.3 Steps following the determination of the representative overvoltages 410

11.3 Selection of surge arresters 412

11.3.1 Continuous operating voltage 412

11.3.2 Rated voltage 413

11.3.3 Nominal discharge current 413

11.3.4 Protective levels 413

11.3.5 Energy absorption capability 414

11.3.6 Rated short-circuit current 415

11.3.7 Study flow 415

11.4 Example of the transient analysis 416

11.4.1 Model setup 416

11.4.2 Results of the analysis 422

References 428

 

12 FACTS: voltage-sourced converter 431

K. Temma

12.1 Category 431

12.2 Control system and simulation modeling 433

12.3 Application of STATCOM 434

12.3.1 Voltage fluctuation 435

12.3.2 Small-signal stability 436

12.3.3 Voltage stability 437

12.3.4 Transient stability 441

12.3.5 Overvoltage suppression 442

12.4 High-order harmonic resonance phenomena 444

12.4.1 Overview of high-order harmonic resonance phenomenon 444

12.4.2 Principle of high-order harmonic resonance phenomenon 450

12.4.3 Field test 453

12.4.4 Considerations and countermeasures 455

References 457

 

13 Application of SVC to cable systems 461

Y. Tamura

13.1 AC cable interconnection to an island 461

13.2 Typical example of voltage variations in an island 461

13.3 The required control function for the SVC 463

13.4 V-I characteristics of the SVC 463

13.5 Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) of the SVC 465

13.6 Transient analysis model 466

13.7 Control parameter settings survey 467

13.8 Comparison of the simulation results 469

13.9 The applied control parameters 472

13.10 Verification by the transient analysis 473

13.11 Verification at the commissioning test 475

13.12 Summary 478

References 479

 

14 Transients on grounding systems 481

S. Visacro

14.1 Introduction: power system transients and grounding 481

14.2 Basic considerations on grounding systems 482

14.3 The response of grounding electrodes subjected to transients currents 484

14.3.1 Introduction 484

14.3.2 Behavior of grounding electrodes subjected to harmonic currents 484

14.3.3 The frequency dependence of soil resistivity and permittivity 488

14.3.4 Behavior of grounding electrodes subjected to impulsive currents 492

14.3.5 The soil ionization effect 496

14.4 Numerical simulation of the transient response of grounding electrodes 497

14.4.1 Preliminary considerations 497

14.4.2 General results of the response of grounding electrodes 499

14.4.3 Grounding potential rise of electrodes subject to lightning currents 501

14.4.4 Impulse impedance and impulse coefficient for first and subsequent return-stroke currents 502

14.5 Case example: analysis of the influence of grounding electrodes on the lightning response of transmission lines 503

References 508

Index 513

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