This is the age of biomechatronics, a time where mechanics and electronics can interact with human muscle, skeleton, and nervous systems to assist or replace limbs, senses, and even organs damaged by trauma, birth defects, or disease.
Introduction to Biomechatronics provides biomedical engineering students and professionals with the fundamental mechatronic (mechanics, electronics, robotics) engineering knowledge they need to analyze and design devices that improve lives.
The first half of the book provides the engineering background to understand all the components of a biomechatronic system: the human subject, stimulus or actuation, transducers and sensors, signal conditioning elements, recording and display, and feedback elements. It also includes the major functional systems of the body to which biomechatronics can be applied including: biochemical, nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory, and musculoskeletal.
The second half discusses five broadly based inventions from a historical perspective and supported by the relevant technical detail and engineering analysis. It begins with the development of hearing prostheses including middle-ear implantable hearing devices and the amazingly successful cochlear implant. This is followed by sensory substitution and visual prostheses that researchers hope will do the same for the blind as the cochlear implant has done for the deaf.
The last three chapters are more mechatronic in focus, examining artificial hearts, respiratory aids from the iron lung to the latest CPAP devices, and finally artificial limbs from the first hooks and peg legs to limbs that move and have a sense of touch.
Introduction to Biomechatronics provides readers with the engineering background to analyze and design biomechatronic devices, and inspires them to greater designs by discussing successful inventions that have done the most to improve our lives.
Graham Brooker’s interest in biomedical engineering started back in the late 70s in his final year of an EE degree when he developed a myoelectric controlled rehabilitative exercise device using an early microprocessor. Unfortunately his proposal to continue the project as part of a postgraduate degree was curtailed by two years compulsory national service.
Here he discovered an alternative passion – radar, and for 20 years his interest in biomedical engineering had to remain little more than a hobby, while he established a career as a radar design engineer.
At the turn of the millennium he had the opportunity to move from industry to academia with the Australian Centre for Field Robotics at the University of Sydney. Here, while completing a PhD, conducting research and lecturing in sensors, he was able to reestablish his biomedical credentials. In 2007 he had the opportunity to develop a course in Biomechatronics (mechatronic engineering with a biomedical flavor) which has been offered as a final year elective course to mechatronic and biomedical engineering students.
Over the past few years, the notes that were developed for the course have evolved into this book.
1. Introduction to Biomechatronics
1.2 Biomechatronic Systems
1.3 Physiological Systems
1.4 Summary of Contents
1.5 The Future of Biomechatronic Systems
2. Sensors and Transducers
2.3 Power Supplies
2.4 Sensors and Transducers
3.2 Electromechanical Actuators
3.3 Hydraulic Actuators
3.4 Pneumatic Actuators
3.5 Shape Memory Alloy
3.6 Mechanical Amplification
3.7 Prosthetic Hand Actuation
4. Feedback and Control Systems
4.2 Biological Feedback Mechanisms
4.3 Biomechatronic Feedback Mechanisms
4.4 System Representation
4.5 System Models
4.6 System Response
4.7 System Stability
4.9 Controller Implementation
5. Signal Processing
5.2 Biomedical Signals
5.3 Signal Acquisition
5.4 Analog Signal Processing
5.5 Digital Signal Processing
5.6 Statistical Techniques and Machine Learning
5.7 Isolation Barriers
6. Hearing Aids and Implants
6.2 What Is Sound?
6.3 How Hearing Works
6.4 Hearing Loss
6.5 Hearing Aids
6.6 Bone Conduction Devices
6.7 Middle Ear Implants
6.8 Direct Acoustic Cochlear Stimulatory Devices
6.9 Cochlear Implants
6.10 Auditory Brainstem Implants
7. Sensory Substitution and Visual Prostheses
7.2 Anatomy and Physiology of the Visual Pathway
7.3 Main Causes of Blindness
7.4 Optical Prosthetics—Glasses, Thermal Imagers, Night Vision
7.5 Sonar-Based Systems
7.6 Laser-Based Systems
7.7 Sensory Substitution
7.8 GPS-Based Systems
7.9 Visual Neuroprostheses
7.10 The Future
8. Heart Replacement
8.2 The Heart as a Pump
8.3 Heart–Lung Machines
8.4 Artificial Hearts
8.5 Ventricular Assist Devices
8.6 Engineering in Heart Assist Devices
8.7 Pump Types
9. Respiratory Aids
9.3 The Mechanics of Respiration
9.4 Energy Required for Breathing
9.5 Measuring Lung Characteristics
9.6 Mechanical Ventilation
9.7 The Physics of External Negative-Pressure Ventilation
9.8 Positive-Pressure Ventilators
10. Active and Passive Prosthetic Limbs
10.2 Structure of the Arm
10.3 Kinematic Model of the Arm
10.4 Structure of the Leg
10.5 Kinematic Model of the Leg
10.6 Kinematics of Limb Movement
10.8 Passive Prosthetics
10.9 Active Prosthetics
10.10 Prosthesis Suspension