Originally posted by: sandip
If we stick to the basic then water is one of the sources of energy like hydraulik power generated through turbine using water etc.
Why stick to the just the basic?
It seems to me that maintaining resilient and sustainable farming systems (with economically competitive outputs) in the face of long term environmental change and short term environmental variability amongst other things, is a complex and important set of problems that students should not be afraid to think about, at the same time as finding a way to fix or improve a failed water pump or turbine...
If a pump or turbine becomes too expensive to maintain or operate, you may have to rethink the whole system....
For example if a diesel pump that pumps so many litres per second and which is critical to maintianing irrigation of farmland becomes too expensive to run, what solutions do you as a consulting engineer suggest.
Would it be more better to set aside some land for growing crops to make biodiesel for the pump or instead build a solar microgrid with solar PV panels, appropriately sized battery and an electrical pump or instead generate biogas from farm waste and run a methane powered pump?
I suppose it depends on the extent to which the pumping has to be done at night (and thus the associated amount energy storage required), the relative capital costs of change, the cost of labour vs capital, the farmers income and ability to fund new capital spending and also what local skills are available locally to support and maintain the new systems long term.
If the farmer says to you that none of the solutions above are economically viable, then even wider systems thinking may be required in terms of organising farms into co-operatives etc. Where for example one farmer specialises in producing biodiesel or biogas for running irrigation pumps and the others concentrate on producing food.
Another example might be if farmers can no longer afford fertilizer. Who is best placed to devise the best crop rotation techniques (involving nitrogen fixing plants somehow) and how the new outputs then created are best used to improve soils, feed animals or produce biogas etc.