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August 12, 2015
Perpetual Motion in the IET Archives

Further research on a letter and postcard from 1914 has not only uncovered the letter writer, Robert B Clifton, Professor of Physics at Oxford University from 1865 to 1915, but also brought to light an interesting story about a ‘perpetual motion machine’.

Background to the Letter of 31 August 1914

In this letter R B Clifton, who is writing to Professor Silvanus P Thompson, is clearly answering earlier questions put to him by Thompson about the ‘perpetual motion’ machine, also called a ‘toy’ by Clifton which was held at Oxford University’s Clarendon Laboratory.

This perpetual motion machine is still housed at Clarendon today and is known as The Clarendon Dry Pile or The Oxford Electric Bell, a pair of voltaic ‘dry piles’ connected to two bells which have been ringing at Oxford since it was set up in 1840. Here is a link to Oxford’s online exhibition about The Clarendon Dry Pile including an image - Clarendon Dry Pile 

The Letter of 31 August 1914

In the letter, Clifton discusses The Clarendon Dry Pile as follows;

“In 1870 it had to be moved from the Museum to the Clarendon Laboratory and I carried it myself. It was working when I took it from the old house & it started gaily when I put it down in its new home. Since October 1870 it has not been touched and has never stopped action.”

Clifton goes on to say;

“Of all the toys I have ever seen ours is the only one in which the piles are insulated by a covering of sulphur.”

Perpetual Motion Machines and Toys

Perpetual motion, a motion that continues indefinitely without any external source of energy, is impossible due to friction and other sources of energy loss. However, purported perpetual motion machines that could work forever without an energy source and perpetual motion experiments were very popular as ideas/concepts in the early to mid-19th century. Clifton, in his letter, discusses some of these toys, and says;

“When I was at school in Brighton (1846-51) there was a toy of the same type as ours which interested me greatly – it was in the shop corridors of Noakes Chemist etc, North Street, and if I remember right it bore the names of Watkins and Hill as makers. After about 1850 I was often in Watkins and Hill’s shop at Charing Cross – the old shop before Elliott Brothers took the business and moved into the Strand. There I met an elderly man who, as I was told, had made a great lot of these toys, but I cannot recall his name. I have seen several of them in various places but I think our specimen must be nearly the last, perhaps actually the last survivor.”

I believe Noakes’ spider – a spider moving over a web, died before I left Brighton for I have a distinct recollection of grief at the loss of an old friend”.

In his subsequent postcard of 1 September 1914, Clifton mentions another ‘dry pile’ as follows;

“Since I finished my letter I have looked at a Bohnenberger Electroscope supplied by Watkins & Hill to a friend of mine who gave it to me many years ago. The piles, no doubt made by the same man that made those at the Laboratory, are still charged so that the instrument works fairly well when the leaf is a full inch from a terminal of each pile”.

A Bohnenberger Electroscope can be found in Florence’s Museo Galileo and an image and description in English can be found here - Bohnenberger Electroscope.

A Mystery Resolved

Knowing the above story – it becomes very clear why the letter and postcard were stored by S P Thompson in the particular book where the items were found. The book from which the items came was 'Della Pila Elettrica a Secco. Dissertazione dell' Ab. Giuseppe Zamboni' or ‘The Electric Dry Pile. Dissertation’, by Giuseppe Zamboni (1776-1846), published in Verona in 1812. The Zamboni pile was an early electric battery invented by Giuseppe Zamboni in 1812. Images of the title page and figure 1 from this book showing Zamboni piles are shown below.

 

 

 

Who Was Robert B Clifton?

R B Clifton (1836-1921) was the Professor of Experimental Philosophy at Oxford (effectively the Professor of Physics). According to the book ‘Physicists Look Back: Studies in the History of Physics’, edited by J Roche, Clifton was, ‘elected on the basis of one original paper of which he was the junior author and because of the reputation of the excellent lectures he gave as a Professor of Physics at Owen’s College, the forerunner of the University of Manchester’. The book also mentions a, ‘widely accepted view’, that Clifton was chosen by the Electors to the Chair in preference to Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-94) and comments that Clifton had no interest in research, so that during his professorship, there was practically no research at the Clarendon Laboratory.

Experimental Philosophy was first examined as a degree subject at Oxford in 1850 and the Reader, then the Reverend Robert Walker, was promoted to Professor in 1860. Robert Clifton took over from Walker in 1865 and held the office until 1915, the year after this letter and postcard were written. Clifton designed the original Clarendon Laboratory, which was built by 1872 and was the first purpose-built physics laboratory in the British Isles. Further information about the history of Physics at Oxford University, the Clarendon Laboratory and Clifton can be found on the Oxford Department of Physics history web pages here - History of Physics at Oxford.

Where Did the Letters Come From?

The habit of S P Thompson to enclose his correspondence with authors, scientists and engineers within books and pamphlets in his library, now in the possession of the IET, has been mentioned in earlier blogs. This letter and postcard written in 1914 by R B Clifton and sent to S P Thompson had been put to one side in the archives some time ago for further investigation as the writer of the letter and postcard had not been determined at that time. A note kept with the items mentioned the book in which the letter and postcard had been found. Not only is this important for tracking the provenance of an item but also the book forms a very interesting part of the story.

The letters were recently recalled from storage and further work uncovered the author of the letter and postcard. Comments made within the letter such as the fact that Clifton had come to Oxford in 1865 and that his predecessor was the ‘Reverend Robert Walker (elected 1839)’, enabled the pinpointing of Clifton as the letter writer, and the signature at the end of the letter in hindsight is very clearly that of R B Clifton. The letter and postcard have been catalogued as items SC MSS 3/A/207 and SC MSS 3/A/208 respectively and can be consulted in the IET Archives.



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Jon Cable
Assistant Archivist
The Institution of Engineering and Technology

Edited: 12 August 2015 at 02:40 PM by Jonathan Cable

   

    Posted By: Jonathan Cable @ 12 August 2015 02:22 PM     Archives     Comments (0)  

30th IEE Member to Fall in World War 1 - Private A M Doig

Private Alexander McLaren Doig of the I/6th Battalion The Manchester Regiment (T.F.), died 11 August 1915, the 30th member of the IEE to die in World War 1.

Alexander Doig was educated at Ducie Avenue Higher Elementary School, Manchester, where he passed the entrance examination of the Victoria University, Manchester, and also won a scholarship at the Municipal School of Technology, Manchester. He entered the Municipal School of Technology in September 1906 and took the 3 year course in electrical engineering under Professor A Schwartz. He was a brilliant student and won the First Prize in the 2nd year examinations and the Second Prize in the 3rd year final examinations. Alexander then took a post-graduate course at the school and on termination, obtained the University Honours Certificate in Technology in June 1910. In August 1909 he was bound by indenture as a School Apprentice (Electrical) with The British Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company Ltd. Upon termination of the apprenticeship in July 1912 Alexander was employed by the company as a Draughtsman in the Transformer Department. He was promoted to Chief Transformer Tester in July 1913 and 6 months later was appointed Engineer in the Drawing Office.

Alexander relinquished his appointment in August 1914 upon receiving his mobilization orders whereupon he joined his Battalion, the 6th Battalion The Manchester Regiment, with whom he had enlisted in the summer of 1912, and went into camp with it at Littleborough, Lancashire. His Division was placed under early orders for Egypt and he sailed from Southampton to the East 10 September 1914. Having spent the early part of 1915 in Egypt, Cyril’s Battalion reached the Gallipoli Peninsula in Turkey in May and was involved in the Battles of Helles (25 April to 6 June 1915). Alexander’s Brigade was involved in the Third Battle of Krithia and for his actions on June 4th 1915 Alexander was awarded the Distinguished Conduct Medal for conspicuous gallantry and initiative as well as being mentioned in despatches. He was wounded in the charge in the early part of the fighting and was subsequently sent to the Military Hospital, Alexandria, where he was under treatment for over 6 weeks, before rejoining his Battalion at Imbros on 27 July. Alexander and his unit took part in the Actions of Krithia Vineyard which began on 6 August and on the 7th he was mortally wounded. He was at once placed on board the hospital ship Tunisian but on his way to Alexandria he succumbed to his injuries and was buried at sea on 11 August 1915.

Private Doig’s obituary was published in the IEE World War I Honour Roll and these details have been reproduced below.

 



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Jon Cable
Assistant Archivist
The Institution of Engineering and Technology

   

    Posted By: Jonathan Cable @ 12 August 2015 09:17 AM     World War I     Comments (0)  

August 4, 2015
The History of Computing - Tabulating Machines

The IET Archives recently received a donation of 6 booklets dating from the 1920s to 1940s covering the subject of tabulating machines which give a fascinating insight into the history of computing and also the forerunners of the well-known computing companies IBM and ICL.

What are tabulating machines?

The tabulating machine was an electromechanical machine designed to assist in summarizing information and, later, accounting information. The machines used punched or perforated cards to add numbers coded on those cards. A typical punched card is shown below.

 

 

Invented by Hermann Hollerith, the machine was developed to help process data for the 1890 US Census. It led to a class of machines, known as unit record equipment, and the data processing industry. The term ‘Super Computing’ was used by the New York World newspaper in 1931 to refer to large custom-built tabulator that IBM made for Columbia University.

According to a 1921 article about the Powers tabulating system;

“The complete installation consists of 3 different machines, all of which are electrically driven. These are known as the Punch, Sorter and Tabulator. The whole of these machines are quite easy to operate, and any unexperienced girl can be taught to use either in an ordinary working day.”

Which companies were involved with and made tabulating machines?

Hollerith started his own business in 1896, founding the Tabulating Machine Company. In 1911, 4 corporations, including Hollerith’s firm merged to form the Computing Tabulating Recording Company (CTR) and in 1924 CTR was renamed International Business Machines (IBM). A Hollerith tabulator illustrated in a 1929 booklet is shown below.

 

 

A competitor for the Hollerith Machine was the Powers Tabulating Machine Company which in 1915 established a European operation in the UK through the Accounting and Tabulating Machine Company of Great Britain Limited which in 1929 was renamed Powers-Samas Accounting Machine Limited.

During WWII the company produced large numbers of Typex cipher machines, derived from the German Enigma machine, for use by the British Armed forces and government departments. In 1959 Powers-Samas merged with the competing company the British Tabulating Machine Company to form International Computers and Tabulators which went on to become part of International Computers Limited (ICL). A Powers tabulator illustrated in a 1929 booklet is shown below.

 

 

The changing nature of the 20th century office

The typing pools of the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s might seem very old fashioned now, but in the 1930s there were whole departments of large businesses that were dedicated to card punching and tabulating. The images below show the Punching Department and the sorting / tabulating rooms respectively at Cornhill Insurance Company in London in 1938.

 

 

 

The collection of booklets has been catalogued (archive reference NAEST 233) and is available to consult at the IET Archive Centre, Savoy Hill House.



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Jon Cable
Assistant Archivist
The Institution of Engineering and Technology

   

    Posted By: Jonathan Cable @ 04 August 2015 02:32 PM     Archives     Comments (0)  

August 3, 2015
IEE Institutional Involvement in WW1 - Council Minutes Extracts - July 1915

Council meeting of 15 July 1915

“486. The following report of the Finance Committee was received and adopted [only points (a) and (d) shown];

(a) Enlistment of staff.

Mr C W Skinner, a member of the staff, has applied for reconsideration of the terms on which he was given permission to enlist (see Minute No.468, 27 May 1915), and in view of further information received, the Committee have agreed to make him an allowance of 8 shillings per week while serving in the Army under the conditions of his present enlistment.

(d) First floor rooms.

Since the outbreak of the war the first floor rooms have been in the occupation of various departments of the Admiralty and War Office free of rent (see Minute No.307(b), 26 November 1914). In view of the falling off in the income of the Institution, the Finance Committee have suggested for the consideration of the Office of Works that a rental of £15 a week (about half of the usual rental), should now be paid to the Institution, and it is understood that the matter is under consideration.”

“487. It was agreed that, in the present exceptional circumstances, no action be taken in regard to removing from the register the names of students over 26 years of age now serving in Him Majesty’s Forces.”

“490. A letter (11 June 1915) was read from the Admiralty Air Department asking for the co-operation of the Institution in supplying information regarding German ports, industries, factories, etc. It was agreed that members of the Council be invited to communicate to the Secretary any such information that they may possess.”

“491. A letter (1 July 1915) was considered from Mr F Creedy, Associate Member, suggesting that the Institution take steps to bring engineers who have specialised in industrial research work into touch with the authorities with a view to investigating and developing inventions or assisting in any way that may be desirable.

A letter (3 July 1915) from Mr W Duddell on a similar subject was also considered. It was agreed as follows:-

(a) To place the services of the Council at the disposal of the Admiralty Inventions Board, of which Lord Fisher is Chairman.

(b) To make the same offer to any similar committee which may be formed by the War Office.

(c) To place the services of the Council at the disposal of the Board of education under the scheme for subsidising industrial research (see Minute No.473, 27 May 1915).”

“493. The President reported the replies received from the Local Sections in regard to forming Engineers’ Volunteer Training Corps outside London (see Minute No.428, 15 April 1915), and after hearing the views of the authorities of the Volunteer Training Corps which had been obtained by the President it was resolved that no further action be taken in this matter.”

[Note: there were no Council meetings in August 1915 or September 1915]



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Jon Cable
Assistant Archivist
The Institution of Engineering and Technology

   

    Posted By: Jonathan Cable @ 03 August 2015 03:35 PM     World War I     Comments (0)  

29th IEE Member to Fall in World War 1 - Corporal C W MIller

Corporal Cyril William Miller of the I/6th Battalion The Manchester Regiment (T.F.), died 30 July 1915, the 29th member of the IEE to die in World War 1.

Cyril Miller was educated at Alleyn’s School Dulwich (1901-1907) where he passed the Oxford Senior Local Examination. He entered the Crystal Palace School of Practical Engineering, Sydenham in January 1908 and took a course in mechanical and electrical engineering under J W Wilson. On completion of his course, Cyril was awarded 1st Class certificates in mechanical and electrical engineering. He was bound by indenture in July 1909 as a Premium Pupil with The British Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company Ltd. On the termination of his apprenticeship in 1913 he was engaged by the company and appointed Technical Adviser to the company’s branch office at Birmingham.

Cyril relinquished his position on receiving his mobilization orders in August 1914 whereupon he joined his Battalion, the 6th Battalion The Manchester Regiment, with whom he had enlisted in 1910, and went into camp with it at Littleborough, Lancashire. His Division was placed under early orders for Egypt and he sailed from Southampton to the East 10 September 1914. Having spent the early part of 1915 in Egypt, Cyril’s Battalion reached Cape Helles in Turkey in May and was involved in the Battle of Helles (25 April to 6 June 1915). It was decide to reorganise the Helles front in mid-May 1915 and the necessary readjustments were carried out during the nights of 16-17 May and 17-18 May 1915. Immediately after the reorganisation had been completed on 18 May Cyril, while on duty in the trenches was hit in the right shoulder by a Turkish bullet and so seriously wounded as to render it necessary for him to go into hospital for treatment. Once recovered Cyril returned to duty in the trenches and was on duty on 30 July in a section of trench line held by his Company. The Turkish snipers were very active at this time and he was hit by one of them, being killed instantaneously having just been selected for advancement to Sergeant. The notification of his promotion was to have been published on the evening of the day Cyril fell in action.

Corporal Miller’s obituary was published in the IEE World War I Honour Roll and these details have been reproduced below.

 



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Jon Cable
Assistant Archivist
The Institution of Engineering and Technology

   

    Posted By: Jonathan Cable @ 03 August 2015 03:32 PM     World War I     Comments (0)  

July 16, 2015
Particle Physics and the IET Archives

A group of four letters recently came to light in the IET Archives which were written from the physicist Sir Oliver Lodge to the Professor of Physics Silvanus P Thompson between 1900 and 1906. The two letters from 1906 were particularly interesting because they were discussing J J Thomson and the electron – Thomson was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in the same year that the letters were written (1906) for the discovery of the electron and for his work on the conduction of electricity in gases.

It is fascinating to see how two contemporary physicists view and absorb a new discovery/theory concerning particle physics in 1906 and perhaps compare it with how modern particle physicists have reacted to the discoveries/theories resulting from the work at the Large Hadron Collider beneath the Franco-Swiss border.

Extract from Letter of 6 March 1906

“My dear SPT, ashamed of delay, but I am lazy. J. J. T. [J J Thomson] atom is not a hollow shell of pos. [positive] E. [energy] it is a solid uniform mass (or sphere) or jelly of it in the substance of which the electrons are embedded. This is to get at law of direct distance, and therefore, the equal periodicity of orbits independent of varying amplitude, shape etc…… I like it much. Of course the treatment of + E [positive energy] is excessively provisional. That is the real outstanding puzzle, and until + E can be tackled the whole theory is vague.”

Extract from Letter of 17 October 1906

“Dear Silvanus Thompson, I am bringing out a new edition of ‘Modern Views of Electricity’. I don’t want to change it much less to reopen it. I shall not be dealing with the electron business: that occurs in another volume; but the old book is often enquired for, and I think would still be useful to elementary students who should not lose sight of the old facts in attending to electrons and new facts…..”

Who Were These Individuals?

Sir Oliver Lodge, FRS (1851-1940), the writer of the letters, was a British physicist and writer involved in the development of, and holder for key patents for, radio. He identified electromagnetic radiation independent of Hertz’ proof and at his 1894 Royal Institution lectures, Lodge demonstrated an early radio wave detector he named the ‘coherer’. Lodge was Principal of the University of Birmingham from 1900 to 1920 and was awarded the IEE’s Faraday Medal in 1932.

 

 

Silvanus Phillips Thompson, FRS (1851-1916), the recipient of the letters, was a professor of physics at the City and Guilds Technical College in Finsbury, and was known for his work as an electrical engineer and as an author. S P Thompson was the President of the IEE in 1899.

 

 

Sir Joseph John Thomson, OM, FRS (1856-1940) was an English physicist who was appointed to the Cavendish Professorship of Experimental Physics at the Cambridge University’s Cavendish Laboratory in 1884. In 1897 Thomson showed that cathode rays were composed of previously unknown negatively charged particles, which he calculated must have bodies much smaller than atoms and a very large value for their charge-to-mass ratio. He is therefore credited with the discovery and identification of the electron and with the discovery of the first subatomic particle. Sir J J Thomson was awarded the IEE’s Faraday Medal in 1925.

Where Did the Letters Come From?

S P Thompson’s large scientific library and pamphlet collection came to the IEE in the early 20th century some years after his death. Thompson had a habit of enclosing his correspondence with authors and scientists and engineers amongst those books and pamphlets.

In the case of the books any letters discovered inside were subsequently extracted for their own protection and now form a separate collection within the IET Archives. However not all the letters were found at the outset and further ones have emerged since that time. These four letters between Lodge and Thompson probably come from within the pages of those books and pamphlets and had been put to one side at some point over later decades. The letters have been catalogued as collection SC MSS 265 and can be consulted in the IET Archives.



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Jon Cable
Assistant Archivist
The Institution of Engineering and Technology

   

    Posted By: Jonathan Cable @ 16 July 2015 03:47 PM     Archives     Comments (0)  

28th IEE Member to Fall in World War 1 - Lieutenant H R Baldwin

Lieutenant Hubert Reginald Baldwin of the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve, attached ‘Nelson’ Battalion, Royal Naval Division, died 13 July 1915, the 28th member of the IEE to die in World War 1.

Hubert Baldwin was educated at Lucton School, Herefordshire (1987-1901). He was bound by Indenture as an Electrical Engineer Apprentice in June 1902 with the Ross Electric Light and Power Company Ltd, where for 3 years he was engaged upon general station work, laying mains, providing house services and in maintaining the plant of the company. On the termination of his apprenticeship in October 1904, he entered the service of The India Rubber, Gutta Percha and Telegraph Works Company Ltd of London where he worked for 10 years, only leaving to serve in H M Forces when war was declared in summer 1914. Hubert’s 1st four years were spent as Assistant Electrician usually working on testing and calibration of instruments but which included working on two cable-laying expeditions. In 1908 he was appointed Assistant to the Company’s General Engineer where he worked on administrative duties in connection with the power plant at the Silvertown factory.

Upon Hubert’s release from employment in September 1914 he was given a commission as a temporary Sub-Lieutenant in the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve. Hubert’s Battalion sailed for the Gallipoli Peninsula 15 May 1915 and he landed during the night of 30-31 May. His Battalion saw action in the Helles Operations. On 12 June 1915 he was transferred to the ‘Nelson’ Battalion, then one of the units of the 1st (Naval) Brigade, which lay at the time in reserve just north of Sedd el Bahr. Hubert’s Division was involved in the Action of Achi Baba Nullah (12-13 July 1915) and on 12 July his Division captured its objectives on the slopes of Achi Baba. Later in the evening of the 12th the Turks made a counter-attack and Hubert’s Division was called upon during the night of 12-13 July. Hubert had gone forward with his unit when it had advanced to the slopes of Achi Baba and was reported missing 13 July. As no information concerning him was obtainable, it was subsequently presumed that he had been killed in action during the heavy fighting during the night of 12-13 July.

Lieutenant Baldwin’s obituary was published in the IEE World War I Honour Roll and these details have been reproduced below.

 

 



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Jon Cable
Assistant Archivist
The Institution of Engineering and Technology

   

    Posted By: Jonathan Cable @ 16 July 2015 11:12 AM     World War I     Comments (0)  

27th IEE Member to Fall in World War 1 - Captain E G Tidd

 Captain Ernest George Tidd of the 6th (City of Glasgow) Battalion, The Highland Light Infantry (T.F.), died 12 July 1915, the 27th member of the IEE to die in World War 1.

George Tidd was educated at New College, Eastbourne, Sussex (1877-1884) where he passed the Cambridge Local Examinations. He entered the Faculty of Science in the Academie de Neuchatel, Switzerland, in September 1884 where George studied for 12 months before returning to England. Shortly afterwards he became a Pupil at the School of Telegraphy and Electrical Engineering, in London, where he took a 12 months course in electrical engineering. In the spring of 1887, at the request of the military authorities at the War Office, George delivered a course of lectures on electricity, with experiments, delivered at the School of Gunnery, Essex. In 1890 he joined Paterson & Cooper Ltd of Dalston, Engineers, as Outside Engineer principally engaged upon consulting work in connection with private lighting installations. When the company failed in 1896, George carried on the business on behalf of the liquidator. In 1897 he joined Morris, Warden & Co. of Glasgow, metal merchants and engineers, as the Company’s Engineer, and in the spring of 1914 he became a partner in the firm.

George had joined the Volunteer Force in 1900 when he was given a Commission in the 2nd Volunteer Battalion, The Highland Light Infantry, and he was promoted to Lieutenant in June 1903. On the creation of the Territorial Force in April 1908, under Lord Haldane’s Army Re-organization Scheme, his Battalion became the 6th (City of Glasgow) Battalion, The Highland Light Infantry, and when George was transferred in he was promoted to Captain. Shortly after the declaration of war in summer 1914 his Battalion mobilized and George rejoined his unit and proceeded with it to Fife for coast defence duty. George sailed with his Battalion to the Gallipoli Peninsula, via Egypt, in May 1915 and he arrived at Cape Helles 1 July 1915. A formal assault on the Turkish positions was ordered 12 July 1915 (Action of Achi Baba Nullah 12-13 July) and after a bombardment in the afternoon of the 12th his Battalion ‘went over the top’. George led the company forward and the attack resulted in the capture by his Brigade of a strong redoubt on the edge of the Kereves Dere. When he had brought his men practically abreast of the Turkish trenches, he fell having been shot through the lungs; and refusing all aid and assistance, he exhorted his men to carry on. George died quarter of an hour after he had been hit.

Captain Tidd’s obituary was published in the IEE World War I Honour Roll and these details have been reproduced below.

 

 



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Jon Cable
Assistant Archivist
The Institution of Engineering and Technology

   

    Posted By: Jonathan Cable @ 16 July 2015 10:46 AM     World War I     Comments (0)  

July 15, 2015
New ebooks added to the IT library colllection

The library service has recently added 67 new titles to its ebook service.
These are available through the Engineering and IT Reference collection (Books 24x7)

Books 24x7 logo

and can be accessed by:


Logging  onto the IET website
Navigating to:
http://www.theiet.org/resources/library/virtual-library/it-reference/index.cfm
Select title

Here I will highlight three titles:

Book cover 

Ten Essential Skills for Electrical Engineers  

by Barry L. Dorr 

IEEE Press © 2014 (268 pages)

ISBN:9781118527429

Written in a user-friendly, no-nonsense format, this book reviews practical skills using the latest tools and techniques, and helps aspiring and current engineers approach job interviews confident in their

grasp of the engineering skills that their employers seek.

Women in IT

Women in IT: Inspiring the Next Generation 

by BCS, The Chartered Institute for IT 

BCS © 2014 (96 pages) 

ISBN:9781780172873

Gender diversity still poses a major challenge in the IT and telecoms industry, with women making up less than 20 percent of the IT workforce. This book seeks to encourage more girls and women to consider a career in IT by showcasing the lives and careers of female IT professionals, entrepreneurs and academics.

Book cover

Performance Measurement and Management for Engineers 

by Michela Arnaboldi, Giovanni Azzone and Marco Giorgino 

Academic Press © 2015 (184 pages) 

ISBN:9780128019023

By introducing key concepts in finance, accounting, and management to project managers who have engineering backgrounds, this book reveals how to assess the financial needs of companies in relation to their financial goals and mechanisms (e.g., equity, debt, and hybrid).

  

The full list of titles is attached below

Take a virtual tour of the service.

For more information see the Books24x7 help page.

 




   

    Posted By: Mike Dunne @ 15 July 2015 02:12 PM     Library     Comments (0)  

July 7, 2015
26th IEE Member to Fall in World War 1 - Sapper F E Tilley

Sapper Frank Edgar Tilley of the Divisional Engineers, Royal Naval Division, died 2 July 1915, the 26th member of the IEE to die in World War 1.

Frank Tilley was educated at the Lyttleton Grammar School, Great Malvern (1894-1898) and at the Intermediate School for Boys Newport (1898-1902) where he passed the Matriculation Examination of the University of London in 1901. In September 1902 having left school Frank was apprenticed as Pupil with Tannett, Walker & Co. Ltd of Leeds, mechanical and hydraulic engineers, for a period of 3 years. Whilst so employed he attended evening classes in mechanical and electrical engineering under Professor John Goodman and others at the Yorkshire College. Following termination of his apprenticeship Frank joined Laurence Scott & Co Ltd of Norwich where he spent 12 months erecting and testing electrical plant and machinery. Frank then took up a similar position with The Lancashire Dynamo and Motor Company Ltd before leaving to join Siemens Brothers’ Dynamo Works Ltd, London, as an engineer in September 1907. He then spent 5 years with the company based in Cardiff supervising the contract work at various collieries. In November 1912 Frank resigned to go to Brazil and work as an Assistant Electrical Engineer with The St John Del Rey Mining Company Ltd. He then returned to the UK in 1913 with the expectation of taking another appointment in Brazil but because of the increasingly uncertain political situation Frank sought engagement with other employers until the outbreak of war.

In September 1914, shortly after the declaration of war Frank enlisted in the then newly raised Divisional Engineers, Royal Naval Division, in September 1914 and was put through military training in Kent. His Division was placed under orders to join the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force, and in consequence sailed for the East on 28 February 1915. Frank’s Division was sent to the Gallipoli Peninsula and took part in the Battles of Helles (25 April to 6 June 1915). After these battles no further attacks on a wide front were carried out during the remainder of June, but the Turks remained active in carrying out minor operations. A vigorous local offensive (Action of Gulley Ravine) took place 28 June to 2 July 1915 and during this action Frank was with his Company, then with supporting troops, on the morning of 30 June. The Turks were shelling the British positions heavily; a shrapnel shell burst near him, and he was hit in the abdomen by one of its fragments, being mortally wounded. He was conveyed to the Casualty Clearing Station at ‘Lancashire Landing’, where he succumbed to his injuries 2 days later.

Sapper Tilley’s obituary was published in the IEE World War I Honour Roll and these details have been reproduced below.



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Jon Cable
Assistant Archivist
The Institution of Engineering and Technology

   

    Posted By: Jonathan Cable @ 07 July 2015 09:32 AM     World War I     Comments (0)  

25th IEE Member to Fall in World War 1 - Sapper A H Ogden

Sapper Arthur Haydock Ogden of the Divisional Engineers, Royal Naval Division, died 18 June 1915, the 25th member of the IEE to die in World War 1.

Arthur Ogden, having passed the Matriculation Examination of the Joint Board of the Northern Universities, entered the Municipal School of Technology, Manchester, in September 1907 and took the 3 year course in electrical engineering under Professor A Schwarz. He graduated a Bachelor of Technical Science in the Manchester University in June 1910. Arthur was apprenticed as a Pupil with The Lancashire Dynamo and Motor Company Ltd, Manchester in August 1910 which lasted for 3 years. At the end of the apprenticeship Arthur was engaged by the company as an Assistant and employed on its Technical Staff.

Arthur relinquished his position with the company on the outbreak of war in the summer of 1914, in order to join H M Forces. He enlisted in the then newly raised Divisional Engineers, Royal Naval Division, in September 1914 and was put through military training in Kent. His Division was placed under orders to join the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force, and in consequence sailed for the East on 28 February 1915. Arthur’s Division was sent to the Gallipoli Peninsula and took part in the Battles of Helles (25 April to 6 June 1915). After these battles no further attacks on a wide front were carried out during the remainder of June, but the Turks remained active in carrying out minor operations. Arthur was on duty on 18 June 1915 in connection with the maintenance of the signal communications to the battalions of the 1st (Naval) Brigade, which were then in the front-line trenches. The Turks then began to shell the divisional front. While he was at work in the trenches, a shell which exploded near him sent its fragments flying in all directions; he was hit by one of them and killed instantaneously.

Sapper Ogden’s obituary was published in the IEE World War I Honour Roll and these details have been reproduced below.



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Jon Cable
Assistant Archivist
The Institution of Engineering and Technology

   

    Posted By: Jonathan Cable @ 07 July 2015 09:30 AM     World War I     Comments (0)  

24th IEE Member to Fall in World War 1 - Lieutenant H L Downes

Lieutenant Herbert Laidlaw Downes of I/8th (Irish) Battalion The King’s (Liverpool Regiment) (Territorial Force), died 15 June 1915, the 24th member of the IEE to die in World War 1.

Herbert Downes was educated at the Willesden High School, London (1895-1898) and at Craven Park College, Harlesdon, London (1899-1902). After spending a further 3 years in technical education and training he joined D Santoni & Co. Ltd in February 1906 and was appointed Manager of the company’s Liverpool Branch Office where he had control of the business in Lancashire, Yorkshire and Cheshire relating to electric lighting schemes for factories and collieries. Herbert resigned this position at the end of 1907 and went into business on his own specialising in electric lighting work. In June 1909 he was joined by P L Davies with whom he founded the firm of Downes and Davies, Liverpool, wholesale electrical engineers, merchants and manufacturers.

Herbert was mobilized on the declaration of war in August 1914, but retained an interest in his firm until the date upon which he fell in action. His Division began to cross the Channel to France 29 April 1915. Shortly after his arrival in France, he was appointed Brigade Machine-Gun Officer to the 154th Infantry Brigade, and graded as Staff Lieutenant. As part of the Second Action of Givenchy (15-16 June 1915) Herbert was noted as performing heroic service during the attack in regulating and arranging for the ammunition supply of his Brigade, which suffered very serious casualties. He was among those reported missing at the end of the first day’s fighting and it was later concluded that he had been killed in action or had died of his wounds on or since 15 June 1915.

Lieutenant Downes’s obituary was published in the IEE World War I Honour Roll and these details have been reproduced below.



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Jon Cable
Assistant Archivist
The Institution of Engineering and Technology

   

    Posted By: Jonathan Cable @ 07 July 2015 09:27 AM     World War I     Comments (0)  

23rd IEE Member to Fall in World War 1 - Lance-Corporal A H Read

Lance-Corporal Ayton Herbert Read of the Divisional Engineers, Royal Naval Division, died 10 June 1915, the 23rd member of the IEE to die in World War 1.

Ayton Read was educated at Bedford Grammar School from 1891 to 1895. He then entered the City and Guilds Central Technical College and took the 3-year course in electrical Engineering under Professor W E Ayrton (President of the IEE in 1892) which he completed in 1898 and received the College Diploma. Ayton was apprenticed as a Pupil with Ransomes & Rapier Ltd of Suffolk in August 1898 starting initially in the firm’s electrical department, then after 3 years in the workshops he moved into the Drawing Office in 1901. Ayton stayed with the firm after his pupillage but left in 1904 to join The Lancashire Dynamo and Motor Company of Manchester as an Estimating Engineer. He then left that employment to go abroad with Balmer, Laurie & Co Ltd of Calcutta as an Assistant Engineer. When his contract expired 5 years later, Ayton returned to the UK and joined The Edison and Swan United Electric Company Ltd as a Manager then was sent to Toronto, Canada to open a branch office. In consequence of the closure of the office in August 1913 Ayton returned to England and resigned his appointment.

Ayton enlisted in September 1914, in the then newly raised Divisional Engineers, Royal Naval Division, and was sent for military training at a camp in Walmer, Kent. His division was allotted to the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force which sailed for the East in February 1915 and the Division was involved in The Battles of Helles (April 25 – June 6 1915). On May 25 1915, Ayton’s Division, together with the 42nd (East Lancashire) Division, managed to creep forward 100 yards nearer the Turkish position. The Turks then began to shell the British positions vigorously. During this bombardment, a projectile penetrated into his ‘dug-out’ and burst; he was stuck by its fragments and seriously wounded. He was at once admitted into the Base Hospital, Cape Helles, where he succumbed to his injuries on 10 June 1915.

Lance-Corporal Read’s obituary was published in the IEE World War I Honour Roll and these details have been reproduced below.



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Jon Cable
Assistant Archivist
The Institution of Engineering and Technology

   

    Posted By: Jonathan Cable @ 07 July 2015 09:25 AM     World War I     Comments (0)  

July 1, 2015
22nd IEE Member to Fall in World War 1 - Sub-Lieutenant W J Henry

Sub-Lieutenant Willoughby John Henry of the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve, attached to the ‘Anson’ Battalion, Royal Naval Division, died 4 June 1915, the 22nd member of the IEE to die in World War 1.

Willoughby Henry was educated at Greenfield Hall School, Holywell, until 1899 when he was articled as a Pupil with W O Rooper & Co. of Chester, electrical engineers, and spent 5 years in that capacity at the company’s Victoria Works, Stafford. Upon termination of the pupillage in 1904 he was engaged by the company as an Assistant and employed at Chester and in London upon general electrical engineering and contracting work. Willoughby resigned from this position in 1905 then worked for a number of companies; as a Draughtsman and Assistant Engineer for Leo Sunderland & Co, electrical engineers, London; and as Chief Engineer to the Army and Navy Auxiliary Co-operative Supply Ltd of Westminster, London. In 1912 Willoughby resigned his position to go to Vancouver Island to join the real estate business of Beaven & Co of Victoria, BC, Canada, as a partner.

Following the declaration of war in August 1914, Willoughby left his business interests in the hands of his partners, returned immediately to Great Britain, and was given a Commission, with the temporary rank of Sub-Lieutenant, in the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve in September 1914. Willoughby’s Battalion left Great Britain in February 1915 and was sent to the Gallipoli Peninsula, via Egypt, where it was involved in the Battles of Helles (April 25 to June 6 1915) in this region. Towards the end of May 1915 a scheme was prepared for the resumption of an offensive (Third Battle of Krithia) and orders in connection with the attack were issued 3 June 1915. About noon on 4 June 1914 Henry’s Brigade rushed forward, and his Battalion captured the southern face of a Turkish redoubt. However later that day the Brigade had to fall back to its original position when its right flank became exposed. During the thick of the day’s fighting, while Willoughby was tending to a fellow officer, who had been severely wounded, he was shot through the heart by a rifle bullet and was killed instantaneously.

Sub-Lieutenant Henry’s obituary was published in the IEE World War I Honour Roll and these details have been reproduced below.



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Jon Cable
Assistant Archivist
The Institution of Engineering and Technology

   

    Posted By: Jonathan Cable @ 01 July 2015 09:49 AM     World War I     Comments (0)  

21st IEE Member to Fall in World War 1 - Second-Lieutenant H J G Davison

Second-Lieutenant Henry James Goddard Davison of the 13th (Service) Battalion, The Prince of Wales’s Own (West Yorkshire Regiment), attached to the 1st Battalion The Lancashire Fusiliers, died 4 June 1915, the 21st member of the IEE to die in World War 1.

Henry Davison was educated at St Paul’s School London until 1905 when he entered Faraday House Electrical Engineering College, Southampton Row, London in May 1905 and took the course under Dr Alexander Russell (IEE President 1923-24). Henry completed the course in 1909 and was awarded the Faraday House Diploma after which he was engaged by The North Wales Power and Traction Company Ltd of Llanberis, and employed as a shift engineer. He spent 2 years at the Cwm Dyli hydro-electric power station, Carnarvon, during which he became Senior Charge Engineer. Henry then worked in a variety of positions for various companies; Assistant Commercial Engineer in the Foreign Department of Veritys Ltd, Birmingham; Assistant Electrical Engineer for consulting engineers Kincaid, Waller, Manville & Dawson in London; and Engineer in Charge of the Central Office and Power Station in Stowmarket, for the Suffolk Electricity Supply Company Ltd.

Following the declaration of war in August 1914, Henry relinquished his position to serve in the Army. Henry’s Battalion was sent to the Gallipoli Peninsula and was involved in the Battles of Helles (April 25 to June 6 1915) in this region. Towards the end of May 1915 a scheme was prepared for the resumption of an offensive (Third Battle of Krithia) and orders in connection with the attack were issued 3 June 1915. At noon on 4 June 1914 Henry’s Company ‘went over the top’. Whilst leading his Platoon forward Henry was hit and fell mortally wounded (almost the whole Platoon was killed). It was not until a month later that this portion of ground was eventually won by British troops and it became possible to bury the bodies of those who fell in action on 4 and 5 June 1915.

Second-Lieutenant Davison’s obituary was published in the IEE World War I Honour Roll and these details have been reproduced below.



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Jon Cable
Assistant Archivist
The Institution of Engineering and Technology

   

    Posted By: Jonathan Cable @ 01 July 2015 09:46 AM     World War I     Comments (0)  

20th IEE Member to Fall in World War 1 - Sergeant G S Bradbury

Sergeant George Swanwick Bradbury of the I/6th Battalion, The Manchester Regiment (T F), died 4 June 1915, the 20th member of the IEE to die in World War 1.

George Bradbury was educated at Manchester Grammar School which he left in 1900. He then worked for 3 years with Graham & Co. Ltd before being bound by indenture as a ‘School Apprentice (Electrical)’ with The British Westinghouse Electric Manufacturing Company Ltd. On completion of his apprenticeship in 1907 he was engaged by British Westinghouse as an Improver in the Testing Department where he spent 5 years. In 1910 George was given a position on the ‘outside staff’ in connection with the running and erection of turbo-generator sets. Eventually in 1912 he was appointed Tester on the company’s Electrical Testing Staff and in 1913 was appointed Foreman.

Following the declaration of war in August 1914, George received mobilization orders and was released from his civil occupation. George’s Battalion was eventually sent to the Gallipoli Peninsula and was involved in the Battles of Helles (April 25 to June 6 1915) in this region. Towards the end of May 1915 a scheme was prepared for the resumption of an offensive (Third Battle of Krithia) and orders in connection with the attack were issued 3 June 1915. At noon on 4 June 1914 his Brigade ‘went over the top’ and was involved in bitter fighting incurring heavy losses that day. On the conclusion of the battle George was reported missing. Nothing was heard of him after he went forward in the charge and as a consequence it was presumed that he was killed in action or died of his wounds on or after 4 June 1915.

Sergeant Bradbury’s obituary was published in the IEE World War I Honour Roll and these details have been reproduced below.

 



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Jon Cable
Assistant Archivist
The Institution of Engineering and Technology

   

    Posted By: Jonathan Cable @ 01 July 2015 09:42 AM     World War I     Comments (0)  

June 24, 2015
Early closure on Wednesday 24th June

The Library will be closing at 4pm on Wednesday 24th June due to an event booking. 

We apologise for any inconvenience to our users. 


   

    Posted By: Edward James Kemp @ 24 June 2015 10:43 AM     Service changes     Comments (0)  

June 22, 2015
19th IEE Member to Fall in World War 1 - Corporal R P Hulton

Corporal Ralph Pacey Hulton of the Divisional Engineers, Royal Naval Division, died 1 June 1915, the 19th member of the IEE to die in World War 1.

Ralph Hulton became a Pupil with the Northallerton Electric Light and Power Company in 1901 where he spent two years gaining practical experience. Following the termination of his pupillage in 1903 Ralph joined Messrs Crompton & Co. of Chelmsford as an electrical engineer where he was principally employed in the Arc Lamp Testing Department. After leaving Crompton & Co. in 1909 he became Managing Director of Rowland & Hulton Ltd before giving up his directorship in 1911 to become a member of staff for Holophane Limited (Scientific Illumination) in London as a Commercial Engineer.

Following the declaration of war in August 1914, Ralph relinquished his position in order to serve in H.M. Forces. Ralph enlisted in September 1914 with the then newly raised Divisional Engineers, Royal Naval Division. In May 1915 Ralph’s Division was involved in fighting on the Gallipoli Peninsula. On May 30 1915 the 2nd (Naval) Brigade was in the front line, and as usual he was with his Section at Brigade Headquarters, being employed at the time on duties in connection with the maintenance of signal communications with the units manning the trenches. He was hit during the day by a stray bullet and was at once conveyed to hospital where an operation was performed for the extraction of the bullet. He succumbed to his injuries two days later (1 June 2015).

Corporal Hulton’s obituary was published in the IEE World War I Honour Roll and these details have been reproduced below.

 



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Jon Cable
Assistant Archivist
The Institution of Engineering and Technology

   

    Posted By: Jonathan Cable @ 22 June 2015 02:01 PM     World War I     Comments (0)  

18th IEE Member to Fall in World War 1 - Second-Lieutenant E Swinton

Second-Lieutenant Ernest Swinton of the Royal Field Artillery, died 28 May 1915, the 18th member of the IEE to die in World War 1.

Ernest Swinton, entered the University of Liverpool in 1909 and took a four year course in mechanical and electrical engineering. He joined the Liverpool Corporation Electric Supply Department in July 1913 and was appointed Station Engineer at the Corporation’s Lister Drive Power Station.

Following the declaration of war in August 1914, E Swinton relinquished his position in order to serve in the Army. He enlisted in the Royal Engineers in August 1914 and then was given a commission in the Royal Field Artillery in December 1914. Swinton’s Division was involved in the Battle of Festubert (May 15 to 25 1915). On the morning of the 18th May, Ernest went forward to reconnoitre a position for his trench mortars, and whilst doing so was severely wounded by the fragments of a shell that burst near him. He was immediately conveyed to No.7 Stationary Hospital, Boulogne. Poison had entered his system and it became necessary to amputate his right leg and arm. He was subsequently moved to the UK, and sent to St Thomas’s Hospital, Westminster, for treatment, where he succumbed to his wounds on May 28 1915.

Second-Lieutenant Swinton’s obituary was published in the IEE World War I Honour Roll and these details have been reproduced below.

 



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Jon Cable
Assistant Archivist
The Institution of Engineering and Technology

   

    Posted By: Jonathan Cable @ 22 June 2015 01:43 PM     World War I     Comments (0)  

June 16, 2015
17th IEE Member to Fall in World War 1 - Private E C H Slater

Private Eric Conrad Henry Slater of the I/6th Battalion, The Manchester Regiment, died 28 May 1915, the 17th member of the IEE to die in World War 1.

Eric C H Slater, having won a Town Scholarship, entered the Municipal Technical College, Brighton, in September 1908 and took the 3 year course in electrical engineering. In August 1911 he was engaged by The British Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company Ltd, Manchester, as a mechanic. Whilst employed with British Westinghouse Eric attended evening classes in electrical engineering subjects at the Municipal School of Technology, Manchester, and in October 1913 gained the degree of Batchelor of Science (Engineering) of the London University as an external student. British Westinghouse then moved Eric to a staff position in the company’s Editorial Department.

Following the declaration of war in August 1914, E C H Slater resigned his position in order to serve in the Army. By May 1915 after a brief spell in Egypt, Eric’s Division was sent to the Gallipoli Peninsula. Towards the end of May preparations were in hand for a major attack on the enemy’s positions at Krithia and Achi Baba. On 28 May, whilst Eric was doing a tour of duty in the front-line trenches; whilst on the look-out at the parapet on that day he was hit by a sniper’s bullet and killed instantaneously.

Private Slater’s obituary was published in the IEE World War I Honour Roll and these details have been reproduced below.



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Jon Cable
Assistant Archivist
The Institution of Engineering and Technology

   

    Posted By: Jonathan Cable @ 16 June 2015 02:22 PM     World War I     Comments (0)  

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