The issues behind road user charging and congestion management.
This factfile provides an overview of road user charging, which describes any process that associates a cost with using a length of road, such as tolling and congestion charging. The factfile covers the externalities of road use; the growing demand on road space; the economic cost of congestion; environmental benefits; and changing public behaviour. The concerns about road pricing include social inclusion; privacy and surveillance; access to businesses; and public distrust in government. The technologies involved are automatic number plate recognition (ANPR); dedicated short-range communication; and global navigation satellite systems. A number of case studies are considered.