Countries around the world are gearing up to change the way they use energy in order to combat climate change. The energy supply needs to become low carbon, while remaining secure and affordable. In order to meet European Union (EU) targets for combating climate change, the UK Government has a target to reduce carbon emissions by 34% by 2020. This requires a large increase in the use of renewable energy and new nuclear power capacity is likely to be built. This briefing looks at how these changes will affect the energy supply, the consumer, and the UK electricity supply industry. It also considers how to balance the electricity supply and demand, and to increase control over energy use.